Dont forget you can find around new Firmware for example for Z9/Z11 Efudd Firmware,and Hive OS firmwares which can Overclock S9/S15/S17 or Underclock (if your electriciy fee are too expensive), for example my S17 Pro I switched to new firmware (Hive OS) to 36Th/s with 900 Watts power gives me a 2.90 usd/day profit without electricity of course, for Z11 Overclocking without changing PSU from 135 to 150-160Ko/sol. I calculated everything on the basis of 0.15 cens Kw / h. Brand New Miner coming out: ASICminer Zeon Turbo 400,000 Sol/s Equihash Most Profitable Miner in the World. ASICminer Daily Revenue: $27 $16 (less 0.15 Kw/h fee) ASICminer Power Consumption: 2500W asicminer dot co/shop (Factory)
Bitmain is regarded as one of the most influential companies in the ASIC mining industry. It is estimated that they have manufactured approximately 53% of all mining equipment.Without including their mining profits, that’s around $140 million dollars in sales. These figures are staggering, but Bitmain’s monopoly of the Bitcoin ASIC market may come to an end, following the release of PowerAsic’s asicpower AP9-SHA256.
About the asicpower AP9-SHA256
Designed with brand new technology and boasting 94 TH/s per miner, the AP(-SHA256 is the most powerful and efficient Bitcoin miner to date.PowerAsic claims they spent $12 million dollars on research, development, and prototypes.PowerAsic also noted that their miners take advantage of ASICBOOST, an exploit of Bitcoin’s algorithm which improves mining efficiency by 20%.An unusual approach separate Powerasic’s miner to the other manufactures is the implementation of copper heat-sink claimed to have a superior thermal conductivity 69% better than aluminium. Don’t take their words for it but confirm the facts are correct on widely well known and published science documents as this one.The first batch of miners were announced and made available for order in August of 2019, with start scheduled for shipment in September, 2019. Powerasic claims that the machines are around 40 percent more productive than the most proficient ASIC on the market, Bitmain’s Antminer S17.According to PowerAsic, they started a mining project with the aim to bring much needed competition to the market…We want to ‘make SHA256 great again.Sitting at the hefty price of $2,795.00, the powerasic AP9-SHA256 is far from affordable for the average person. Fortunately, due to the newly born rivalry between Bitmain and Powerasic, the price will probably lower with time and competition.The power supply for this unit is included and integrated in the top-box also including the controler card as a one unit. You will also get standard power cable, network cable, manual and software in the packet. In comparison to the price of the Antminer S17 , the Powerasic AP9-Sha256 is a better value.
The integrated PSU 3300W has a inputVoltage 220V 50Hz 30A. There are 2 fan 40mm., 1 fan 60mm to keep it cool and the power cable 3 legs following CEE 7 standard.Professional mining hardware runs optimally at 220-240V, hence why mining farms step down their own electricity supply to 220-240V. Note that 220V current is only found outside of the US – American outlets are 110V by default. Unless you want to hire an electrician, this could cause some people trouble adapt to the eficient and recomended 220V power needed, still 110V will get the job done, but they are not ideal for optimum mining performance.
Thanks to the powerasic AP9-HA256’s new 7nm generation of ASIC chips, the AP9-SHA256 has become the most electrically-efficient miner on the market.Consuming merely 30.J/TB, or 2860W from the wall, the 16T is 30% more electrically-efficient than the Antminer S17.
Powerasic ’s new ASIC technology is impressive. When compared to its closest competitor, the Antminer S17, the powerasic AP9-HA256 is the clear winner. It hashes at 94 TH/s, as opposed to the S17’s 56 TH/s. Moreover, the the AP9-HA256 consumes 30J/GH, whereas the S17 consumes 39-45J/TB.The difference in power consumption is miniscule, but when it comes to large-scale mining, the the AP9-HA256’s edge will drastically increase the profitability of a mining operation. This ASIC is profitable not only for mining on a large scale, but for the individual miner as well.Take a look at the projected mining profitability of a single miner:Note that is appears profitable even with high electricity costs ($0.1 per KW/h). With $0.05 / KW/h it’s even more profitable:📷Each powerasic AP9-HA256 will generate about $6,009 per year (calculated with 1 BTC=$10,141.5). Mining profitability may vary. You can usethis free profitability calculator to determine your projected earnings.
Is powerasic AP9-HA256 a Scam?
There is been a lot of talk on Twitter that powerasic AP9-HA256 is a scam. It appears it is not, as many users are already claiming to have received their miners.Slush, the creator ot Slush Mining Pool and the TREZOR hardware wallet, claims on Twitter that he has seen units and knows people who have had their miners delivered:
Verdict: Is The Antminer S17 Outdated?
When the first batch of Bitmain’s Antminer S17 ASICs reached the eager hands of miners, they were all the rage. The S17 was renowned as the most efficient ASIC miner on the market. Many used the S17 as the industry’s golden standard.Up until the launch of the powerasic AP9-HA256, it was the golden standard.But, now?Things have changed.Not only is the powerasic AP9-HA256 more powerful than its predecessor from Bitmain, but also more efficient, and therefore, more profitable.Ever since the announcement of the new ASIC, there was widespread speculation of its legitimacy – and rightly so.The Bitcoin community has been plagued with small, phony companies manipulating images of preexisting antminers as a ploy to hype up their fake products. Nevertheless, powerasic AP9-HA256 is taking things seriously, and their first batch of miners have lived up to expectations.The fact of the matter is, Bitmain’s most powerful and efficient antminer has been dethroned by the new reigning king of ASICs: The powerasic AP9-HA256.
Bitmain has dominated the ASIC market since its inception in 2013.There are a few other companies producing ASICs. However, before the creation of PowerAsics AP9-SHA256., Bitmain was the only company with a proven track record that sold efficient miners directly to the public.Powerasic AP9-HA256 has the potential to bring Bitmain’s monopoly to an end. Powerasic AP9-HA256 has a bright future ahead of them. Now that Bitmain has noteworthy competition, it will be interesting to see how it affects the market. The powerasic AP9-HA256 is the best option (for now) for anyone getting started with mining. Powerasic’s innovation should force other ASIC producers to innovate and force other companies to release new miners with better efficiency. So whether you’re buying a miner now or soon, you’re likely to benefit from the development of this new miner. For more, Visit Us: https://asicpower.net/product.php
To mine Bitcoin Rhodium you need to set up an XRC wallet and configure your miner of choice. You can choose between Web wallet, Electrum-XRC or Magnum wallet. To set up a web wallet please visit wallet.bitcoinrh.org. Or download and install Electrum-XRC wallet (recommended) for Windows, Linux and MacOS.
Any miner that supports X13 will be able to mine XRC. We have a few examples below of miners that are well tested with Bitcoin Rhodium network.
For any miner, configure the miner to point to:
(0–0.8 GH/s) stratum+tcp://poolcore.bitcoinrh.org:3061 (0.8–2 GH/s) stratum+tcp://poolcore.bitcoinrh.org:3062 (3–4 GH/s) stratum+tcp://poolcore.bitcoinrh.org:3063 (5+ GH/s) stratum+tcp://poolcore.bitcoinrh.org:3064 with your XRC address as username and x as password. You don’t need to open an account on pool. You will be mining to XRC address and mined coins will be transferred to your wallet • after blocks reach 10 block maturity • after you mined up minimal amount of coins (currently 0.1 XRC) • sometimes mined blocks could get rejected by network (orphaned) after they were counted as valid blocks. This is normal network behavior to follow longest chain
CCMiner is a GPU-based miner (NVIDIA) Command to run your CCMINER: ccminer-x64.exe -a x13 -o stratum+tcp://poolcore.bitcoinrh.org:3062 -O :without -D — show-diff
Settings: Url: (0–2 GH/s) stratum+tcp://poolcore.bitcoinrh.org:3062 (3–4 GH/s) stratum+tcp://poolcore.bitcoinrh.org:3063 (5+ GH/s) stratum+tcp://poolcore.bitcoinrh.org:3064 Algo: x13User: your XRC receiving address (make sure you set 2 distinct addresses for each hashing board) Pass: x Extranonce: leave off Priority set to 0 and 1 Once pool stratum address and your wallet as user are set up you should see your miner mining against XRC pool. When miner is working the status column is green. The pool and miner are incorrectly configured now as status says “Dead” highlighted in red.
Instructions for mining XRC on BSOD pool
Pool link:bsod.pw/en/pool/dashboard/XRC/ Use this code for your miner: -a x13 -o stratum+tcp://pool.bsod.pw:2582 -u WALLET.rig BSOD pool allows both solo and party mining.
For solo mining use code: -a x13 -o stratum+tcp://pool.bsod.pw:2582 -u WALLET.rig -p m=solo And for party mining use: -a x13 -o stratum+tcp://pool.bsod.pw:2582 -u WALLET.rig -p m=party.yourpassword
NOTICE: You can use us for North America and asia for Asia instead of euin your .bat file or config. You can also use BSOD pool’s monitor app forAndroidandiOS.
Instructions for mining XRC on ZERGPOOL
Zergpool offers low fees (just 0.5%) and also SOLO and PARTY mining with no extra fees. To mine XRC on Zergpool use this command lines for your miner:
Regular: -a x13 -o stratum+tcp://x13.mine.zergpool.com:3633 -u -p c=XRC,mc=XRC Solo: -a x13 -o stratum+tcp://x13.mine.zergpool.com:3633 -u -p c=XRC,mc=XRC,m=solo Party: -a x13 -o stratum+tcp://x13.mine.zergpool.com:3633 -u -p c=XRC,mc=XRC,m=party
Use your coin wallet address as username in mining software. Specify c=SYMBOL as password to identify payout wallet coin, and the same coin in mc=SYMBOL to specify mining coin. For more information and support please visit http://zergpool.com Notice that when there are more pools mining XRC in different geographic/availability locations choose the nearest to you as lowest priority and then add desirable fall back pool options in different geographic locations or pools. This is useful when one pool experiences issues, to fall back to different pool in Bitcoin Rhodium network.
Calculate your Bitcoin Rhodium mining profitability
It's easy to compare blockchain hashrates when the Proof-of-Work algorithm is the same. For example if Bitcoin has a hashrate of SHA-256 @ 40 PH/s and Bitcoin Cash has a hashrate of SHA-256 @ 2 PH/s, it's easy to see that for a given period of time the Bitcoin blockchain will have 20x (40/2) the amount of work securing it than the Bitcoin Cash blockchain. Or to say that differently, you need to wait for 20x more Bitcoin Cash confirmations before an equivalent amount of work has been done compared to the Bitcoin blockchain. So 6 Bitcoin confirmations would be roughly equivalent to 120 Bitcoin Cash confirmations in the amount of work done. However if the Proof-of-Work algorithms are different, how can we compare the hashrate? If we're comparing Bitcoin (SHA-256 @ 40 PH/s) against Litecoin (Scrypt @ 300 TH/s), the hashes aren't equal, one round of SHA-256 is not equivalent to one round of Scrypt. What we really want to know is how much energy is being consumed to provide the current hash rate. Literal energy, as in joules or kilowatt hours. It would be great if we had a universal metric across blockchains like kWh/s to measure immutability. However that's fairly hard to calculate, we need to know the average power consumption of the average device used to mine. For GPU/CPU mined Proof-of-Work algorithms this varies greatly. For ASIC mined Proof-of-Work algorithms it varies less, however it's likely that ASIC manufacturers are mining with next generation hardware long before the public is made aware of them, which we can't account for. There's no automated way to get this data and no reliable data source to scrape it from. We'd need to manually research all mining hardware and collate the data ourself. And as soon as newer mining hardware comes out our results will be outdated. Is there a simpler way to get an estimated amount of work per blockchain in a single metric we can use for comparisons? Yeah, there is, we can use NiceHash prices to estimate the cost in $ to secure a blockchain for a given timeframe. This is directly comparable across blockchains and should be directly proportionate to kWh/s, because after all, the energy needs to be paid for in $. How can we estimate this?
Get the blockchains Proof-of-Work algorithm
Lookup the average price per hash on NiceHash for this algorithm
Multiply price per hash by total hashrate per second
Now we have an estimated total Proof-of-Work metric measured in dollars per second ($/s). The $/s metric may not be that accurate. Miners will mark up the cost when reselling on NiceHash and we're making the assumption that NiceHash supply is infinite. You can't actually rent 100% of Bitcoin's hashpower from NiceHash, there isn't enough supply. However that's not really an issue for this metric, we aren't trying to calculate the theoretical cost to rent an additional 100% of the hashrate, we're trying to get a figure that allows us to compare the cost of the current total hashrate accross blockchains. Even if the exact $ value we end up with is not that accurate, it should still be proportionate to kWh/s. This means it's still an accurate metric to compare the difference in work done over a given amount of time between blockchains. So how do we compare these values between blockchains? Once we've done the above calculations and got a $/s cost for each blockchain, we just need to factor in the average block time and calculate the total $ cost for a given number of confirmations. Then see how much time is required on the other blockchain at it's $/s value to equal the total cost. So to calculate how many Litecoin confirmations are equivalent to 6 Bitcoin confirmations we would do:
Bitcoin (SHA-256 @ 40 PH/s) or ($100/s)
Litecoin (Scrypt @ 300 TH/s) or ($10/s)
Bitcoin's average block time is 10 minutes (600 seconds)
6 Bitcoin confirmations on average is 60 minutes (3,600 seconds)
Bitcoin's total $ cost for 6 confirmations is ($100 * 3,600 seconds) $360,000
At Litecoin's hashrate of $10/s it would take ($360,000 / $10) 36,000 seconds (10 hours) to complete an equivalent amount of work
Litecoin's average block time is 2.5 minutes (150 seconds)
The amount of Litecoin blocks expected over this period of time is (36,000 seconds / 150 seconds) 240 blocks.
Therefore we can say that 240 Litecoin confirmations are roughly equal to 6 Bitcoin confirmations in total amount of work done.
$/s doesn't mean what it sounds like it means.
The $/s values should not be taken as literal costs. For example:
Bitcoin's total $ cost for 6 confirmations is ($100 * 3,600 seconds) $360,000
This is does not mean you could do a 51% attack on Bitcoin and roll back 6 blocks for a cost of $360,000. An attack like that would be much more expensive. The $/s value is a metric to compare the amount of work at the current hashrate between blockchains. It is not the same as the cost to add hashrate to the network. When adding hashrate to a network the cost will not scale linearly with hashrate. It will jump suddenly at certain intervals. For example, once you've used up the available hashrate on NiceHash you need to add the costs of purchasing ASICs, then once you've bought all the ASICs in the world, you'd need to add the costs of fabricating your own chips to keep increasing hashrate.
These metrics are measuring "work done", not security.
More "work done" doesn't necessarily mean "more security". For example take the following two blockchains:
Bitcoin Cash (SHA-256 @ 2 PH/s) or ($5/s)
Zcash (Equihash @ 4 GH/s) or ($3/s)
Bitcoin Cash has a higher $/s value than Zcash so we can deduce it has more "work done" over a given timeframe than Zcash. More kWh/s are required to secure it's blockchain. However does that really mean it's safer? Zcash is the dominant blockchain for it's Proof-of-Work algorithm (Equihash). Whereas Bitcoin Cash isn't, it uses the same algorithm as Bitcoin. In fact just 5% of Bitcoin's hashrate is equivalent to all of Bitcoin Cash's hashrate. This means the cost of a 51% attack against Bitcoin Cash could actually be much lower than a 51% attack against Zcash, even though you need to aquire more kWh/s of work, the cost to aquire those kWh/s will likely be lower. To attack Bitcoin Cash you don't need to acquire any hardware, you just need to convince 5% of the Bitcoin hashrate to lend their SHA-256 hashpower to you. To attack Zcash, you would likely need to fabricate your own Equihash ASICs, as almost all the Equihash mining hardware in the world is already securing Zcash.
Accurately calculating security is much more complicated.
These metrics give a good estimated value to compare the hashrate accross different Proof-of-Work blockchains. However to calculate if a payment can be considered "finalised" involves many more variables. You should factor in:
Is this cryptocurrency the dominant cryptocurrency for it's Proof-of-Work algorithm?
What is the market cap of this cryptocurrency?
What is the daily trading volume of this cryptocurrency?
What is the $ value of this transaction?
If the cryptocurrency doesn't dominate the Proof-of-Work it can be attacked more cheaply. If the market cap or trading volume is really low, an attacker may crash the price of the currency before they can successfully double spend it and make a profit. Although that's more relevant in the context of exchanges rather than individuals accepting payments. If the value of the transaction is low enough, it may cost more to double spend than an attacker would profit from the double spend. Ultimately, once the cost of a double spend becomes higher than an attacker can expect to profit from the double spend, that is when a payment can probably be considered "finalised".
Thinking of ordering an ASIC? There is most likely nothing you can order right now that will earn you more BTC than you can buy right now. In fact, there is not really anything you can order right now that will ROI, even using generous figures.
Disclaimer: I am a miner and have ASICs, so there is a conflict of interest in posting this. But I'm not just trying to talk potential competition out of mining. If you think you'd enjoy it and aren't driven solely by making a profit, I've always recommended it when asked. Disclaimer 2: You will likely see much better ROI on buying Bitcoins than mining them. Some already understand this and want to mine anyway, and I am one of those (although I had bought coins along with ordering ASICs). I'm sure this point will be echoed repeatedly. Disclaimer 3: This is based on the mining calculator and ASIC info currently listed on TGB (using default 117% monthly increase in difficulty). This is only a guess based on past performance, which many consider to be too low of a guess. But for the sake of this post, I'd rather take a conservative (low) guess to present a best-case scenario. Disclaimer 4: I'm tired. I apologize for the disclaimers, but I've used reddit enough to know I need to qualify every sentence before I write it. After receiving the ASICs I ordered 7+ months ago, I wanted to compare my investment with the new miners that have appeared since I ordered. It turns out that anything you were to order right now will most likely lose money, it's just a matter of how much you want to lose. If anything is incorrect here feel free to prove otherwise. I'd appreciate any corrections. My reason for posting is because I was honestly surprised by what I found, but maybe my math is wrong or maybe TGB's data is wrong. The lowest cost-per-Gh/s available to pre-order right now is $3, but those miners won't be shipping until January 2014 (Cointerra). The next option would be $4 shipping in December (Bitmine). Even at these low prices-per-Gh/s, that is too late. The lowest cost-per-Gh/s shipping in November is $9.10 (KnC) but even if you start mining November 1st, that is not enough. This is all assuming these companies ship and ship on time. KnC has started shipping, but if you were to order today you definitely won't be mining all of November. Take these figures with a grain of salt. You'll want to make your own calculations before making any investment decision, but these are rough estimates.
If you start mining at the beginning of November, you'll need to have paid less than $8/Gh/s to see ROI (less than 0.15 BTC profit).
If you start mining at the beginning of December, you'll need to have paid less than $3/Gh/s to see ROI (less than 0.4 BTC profit).
If you start mining at the beginning of January, you'll need to have paid less than $1/Gh/s to see ROI (less than 0.4 BTC profit).
These calculations are based on a 100Gh/s miner running at 50W (0.5W/Gh which is below what any listed miner is capable of achieving: lowest is 0.6W/Gh). If you scale it up to a 1Th/s miner running at 500W, you get about $0.60 extra to spend per Gh/s and still get the same ROI. So unless you have free electricity or you're an Electrical Engineer that dabbles in the black arts, your ROI will be even less likely. This is also using a $0.10/kWh rate, which I think is also low for many people. There are a lot of variables here, so this is in no way a guaranteed outcome. To determine ROI I used BTC instead of USD, so the future price of Bitcoin is not a factor here. If you're buying a miner in USD (or other fiat) and are basing ROI on that same currency, then the future BTC price when you sell your mined coins would matter. This also doesn't account for "miner protection plans" which we have yet to see in action so it's difficult to say how well they'll work. The way I personally look at it: most hobbies don't ROI and if you think mining is valid hobby and can take a loss then go for it. There can be more to mining than "plugging it in and watching it" as is usually the argument of people who don't mine. Again, please feel free to correct any mistakes. It's very late here and I did this quickly. This is as much of a question asking if my thinking is correct as it is a notice to potential ASIC buyers. I'll edit this post as necessary. TL;DR - If profit is your only goal, don't buy an ASIC right now.
Note: New Reddit look may not highlight links. See old look here. A copy is hosted on GitHub for better reading experience. Check it out, contains photo of the month! Also on Medium
dcrd: Significant optimization in signature hash calculation, bloom filters support was removed, 2x faster startup thanks to in-memory full block index, multipeer work advancing, stronger protection against majority hashpower attacks. Additionally, code refactoring and cleanup, code and test infrastructure improvements. In dcrd and dcrwallet developers have been experimenting with new modular dependency and versioning schemes using vgo. @orthomind is seeking feedback for his work on reproducible builds. Decrediton: 1.2.1 bugfix release, work on SPV has started, chart additions are in progress. Further simplification of the staking process is in the pipeline (slack). Politeia: new command line tool to interact with Politeia API, general development is ongoing. Help with testing will soon be welcome: this issue sets out a test plan, join #politeia to follow progress and participate in testing. dcrdata: work ongoing on improved design, adding more charts and improving Insight API support. Android: design work advancing. Decred's own DNS seeder (dcrseeder) was released. It is written in Go and it properly supports service bit filtering, which will allow SPV nodes to find full nodes that support compact filters. Ticket splitting service by @matheusd entered beta and demonstrated an 11-way split on mainnet. Help with testing is much appreciated, please join #ticket_splitting to participate in splits, but check this doc to learn about the risks. Reddit discussion here. Trezor support is expected to land in their next firmware update. Decred is now supported by Riemann, a toolbox from James Prestwich to construct transactions for many UTXO-based chains from human-readable strings. Atomic swap with Ethereum on testnet was demonstrated at Blockspot Conference LATAM. Two new faces were added to contributors page. Dev activity stats for May: 238 active PRs, 195 master commits, 32,831 added and 22,280 deleted lines spread across 8 repositories. Contributions came from 4-10 developers per repository. (chart)
Hashrate: rapid growth from ~4,000 TH/s at the beginning of the month to ~15,000 at the end with new all time high of 17,949. Interesting dynamic in hashrate distribution across mining pools: coinmine.pl share went down from 55% to 25% while F2Pool up from 2% to 44%. [Note: as of June 6, the hashrate continues to rise and has already passed 22,000 TH/s] Staking: 30-day average ticket price is 91.3 DCR (+0.8), stake participation is 46.9% (+0.8%) with 3.68 million DCR locked (+0.15). Min price was 85.56. On May 11 ticket price surged to 96.99, staying elevated for longer than usual after such a pump. Locked DCR peaked at 47.17%. jet_user on reddit suggested that the DCR for these tickets likely came from a miner with significant hashrate. Nodes: there are 226 public listening and 405 normal nodes per dcred.eu. Version distribution: 45% on v1.2.0 (up from 24% last month), 39% on v1.1.2, 15% on v1.1.0 and 1% running outdaded versions.
Obelisk team posted an update. Current hashrate estimate of DCR1 is 1200 GH/s at 500 W and may still change. The chips came back at 40% the speed of the simulated results, it is still unknown why. Batch 1 units may get delayed 1-2 weeks past June 30. See discussions on decred and on siacoin. @SiaBillionaire estimated that 7940 DCR1 units were sold in Batches 1-5, while Lynmar13 shared his projections of DCR1 profitability (reddit). A new Chinese miner for pre-order was noticed by our Telegram group. Woodpecker WB2 specs 1.5 TH/s at 1200 W, costs 15,000 CNY (~2,340 USD) and the initial 150 units are expected to ship on Aug 15. (pow8.com – translated) Another new miner is iBelink DSM6T: 6 TH/s at 2100 W costing $6,300 (ibelink.co). Shipping starts from June 5. Some concerns and links were posted in these twothreads.
A new mining pool is available now: altpool.net. It uses PPLNS model and takes 1% fee. Another infrastructure addition is tokensmart.io, a newly audited stake pool with 0.8% fee. There are a total of 14 stake pools now. Exchange integrations:
Upbit added DCKRW and DCUSDT pairs. A user reported that DCR deposits and withdrawals are now available.
CoinEx announced the launch of DCBTC and DCBCH pairs.
Bleutrade added DCUSDT pair. Note their reply to our tweet. It was the first exchange to list Decred minutes after launch.
Brazilian exchange OmniTradeadded DCBRL fiat pair following a poll. Worth noting that it is one of the first to integrate Trezor sign-in.
There are reports that DCR was added to Abucoins and Tor Exchange but we don't know much about them.
OpenBazaar released an update that allows one to trade cryptocurrencies, including DCR. @i2Rav from i2trading is now offering two sided OTC market liquidity on DCUSD in #trading channel. Paytomat, payments solution for point of sale and e-commerce, integrated Decred. (missed in April issue) CoinPayments, a payment processor supporting Decred, developed an integration with @Shopify that allows connected merchants to accept cryptocurrencies in exchange for goods.
michae2xl: Voto Legal: CEO Thiago Rondon of Appcívico, has already been contacted by 800 politicians and negotiations have started with four pre-candidates for the presidency (slack, source tweet)
Blockfolio rolled out Signal Beta with Decred in the list. Users who own or watch a coin will automatically receive updates pushed by project teams. Nice to see this Journal made it to the screenshot! Placeholder Ventures announced that Decred is their first public investment. Their Investment Thesis is a clear and well researched overview of Decred. Among other great points it noted the less obvious benefit of not doing an ICO:
By choosing not to pre-sell coins to speculators, the financial rewards from Decred’s growth most favor those who work for the network.
One project that stands out at #Consensus2018 is @decredproject. Not annoying. Real tech. Humble team. #BUIDL is strong with them. (@PallerJohn)
Token Summit in New York, USA. @cburniske and @jmonegro from Placeholder talked "Governance and Cryptoeconomics" and spoke highly of Decred. (twitter coverage: 12, video, video (from 32 min)) Campus Party in Bahia, Brazil. João Ferreira aka @girino and Gabriel @Rhama were introducing Decred, talking about governance and teaching to perform atomic swaps. (photos) Decred was introduced to the delegates from Shanghai's Caohejing Hi-Tech Park, organized by @ybfventures. Second Decred meetup in Hangzhou, China. (photos) Madison Blockchain in Madison, USA. "Lots of in-depth questions. The Q&A lasted longer than the presentation!". (photo) Blockspot Conference Latam in Sao Paulo, Brazil. (photos: 1, 2) Upcoming events:
The Long-Term Bullish Case for Decred by Ben Davidow (medium.com)
Hardware Companies Are Launching Dedicated ASIC Miners for Decred (btcmanager.com)
Iterative Capital partner Chris Dannen and journalist Ben Schiller speak with Marco and Jonathan from Decred at Consensus 2018 (soundcloud)
Decred Review: What is DCR, the Decred Community & Possible Challenges by BitBoy Crypto (youtube)
Decred Founder: Bitcoin Paved Way, Phase 2 Will Shock You! (Marco Peereboom) by Pure Blockchain Wealth (youtube)
Decred & Blocknet: Revolutionary governance for every community feat. JZ at Consensus 2018 (youtube)
Decred coin - Will it be better than Bitcoin? by Bitassist (youtube)
Community stats: Twitter 39,118 (+742), Reddit 8,167 (+277), Slack 5,658 (+160). Difference is between May 5 and May 31. Reddit highlights: transparent up/down voting on Politeia, combining LN and atomic swaps, minimum viable superorganism, the controversial debate on Decred contractor model (people wondered about true motives behind the thread), tx size and fees discussion, hard moderation case, impact of ASICs on price, another "Why Decred?" thread with another excellent pitch by solar, fee analysis showing how ticket price algorithm change was controversial with ~100x cut in miner profits, impact of ticket splitting on ticket price, recommendations on promoting Decred, security against double spends and custom voting policies. @R3VoLuT1OneR posted a preview of a proposal from his company for Decred to offer scholarships for students. dcrtrader gained a couple of new moderators, weekly automatic threads were reconfigured to monthly and empty threads were removed. Currently most trading talk happens on #trading and some leaks to decred. A separate trading sub offers some advantages: unlimited trading talk, broad range of allowed topics, free speech and transparent moderation, in addition to standard reddit threaded discussion, permanent history and search. Forum: potential social attacks on Decred. Slack: the #governance channel created last month has seen many intelligent conversations on topics including: finite attention of decision makers, why stakeholders can make good decisions (opposed to a common narrative than only developers are capable of making good decisions), proposal funding and contractor pre-qualification, Cardano and Dash treasuries, quadratic voting, equality of outcome vs equality of opportunity, and much more. One particularly important issue being discussed is the growing number of posts arguing that on-chain governance and coin voting is bad. Just a few examples from Twitter: Decred is solving an imagined problem (decent response by @jm_buirski), we convince ourselves that we need governance and ticket price algo vote was not controversial, on-chain governance hurts node operators and it is too early for it, it robs node operators of their role, crypto risks being captured by the wealthy, it is a huge threat to the whole public blockchain space, coin holders should not own the blockchain. Some responses were posted here and here on Twitter, as well as this article by Noah Pierau.
The month of May has seen Decred earn some much deserved attention in the markets. DCR started the month around 0.009 BTC and finished around 0.0125 with interim high of 0.0165 on Bittrex. In USD terms it started around $81 and finished around $92, temporarily rising to $118. During a period in which most altcoins suffered, Decred has performed well; rising from rank #45 to #30 on Coinmarketcap. The addition of a much awaited KRW pair on Upbit saw the price briefly double on some exchanges. This pair opens up direct DCR to fiat trading in one of the largest cryptocurrency markets in the world. An update from @i2Rav:
We have begun trading DCR in large volume daily. The interest around DCR has really started to grow in terms of OTC quote requests. More and more customers are asking about trading it.
Like in previous month, Decred scores high by "% down from ATH" indicator being #2 on onchainfx as of June 6.
David Vorick (@taek) published lots of insights into the world of ASIC manufacturing (reddit). Bitmain replied. Bitmain released an ASIC for Equihash (archived), an algorithm thought to be somewhat ASIC-resistant 2 years ago. Threepure PoWcoins were attacked this month, one attempting to be ASIC resistant. This shows the importance of Decred's PoS layer that exerts control over miners and allows Decred to welcome ASIC miners for more PoW security without sacrificing sovereignty to them. Upbit was raided over suspected fraud and put under investigation. Following news reported no illicit activity was found and suggested and raid was premature and damaged trust in local exchanges. Circle, the new owner of Poloniex, announced a USD-backed stablecoin and Bitmain partnership. The plan is to make USDC available as a primary market on Poloniex. More details in the FAQ. Poloniex announced lower trading fees. Bittrex plans to offer USD trading pairs. @sumiflow made good progress on correcting Decred market cap on several sites:
speaking of market cap, I got it corrected on coingecko, cryptocompare, and worldcoinindex onchainfx, livecoinwatch, and cryptoindex.co said they would update it about a month ago but haven't yet I messaged coinlib.io today but haven't got a response yet coinmarketcap refused to correct it until they can verify certain funds have moved from dev wallets which is most likely forever unknowable (slack)
About This Issue
Some source links point to Slack messages. Although Slack hides history older than ~5 days, you can read individual messages if you paste the message link into chat with yourself. Digging the full conversation is hard but possible. The history of all channels bridged to Matrix is saved in Matrix. Therefore it is possible to dig history in Matrix if you know the timestamp of the first message. Slack links encode the timestamp: https://decred.slack.com/archives/C5H9Z63AA/p1525528370000062 => 1525528370 => 2018-05-05 13:52:50. Most information from third parties is relayed directly from source after a minimal sanity check. The authors of Decred Journal have no ability to verify all claims. Please beware of scams and do your own research. Your feedback is precious. You can post on GitHub, comment on Reddit or message us in #writers_room channel. Credits (Slack names, alphabetical order): bee, Richard-Red, snr01 and solar.
Where is the network difficulty headed, come November?
Reposted for accuracy. (Read: My math skills are the result of public education.) KNCMiner announced today that they're doing encapsulation on their new Scrypt ASIC chips, and then when they're completed, will be shipping to Stockholm for integration and testing, buildout and finally...shipping! I have read on forums that they have sold 3,000 Titans via pre-order, for batch 1, at 250MH/s nominal performance, each. I figured it was time to look at my "hashrate/difficulty prediction" again and see where it may actually be, by the time the snow's falling. All of the below is calculated with a Litecoin price of around $5. Let's assume for a moment that both Alpha Technology and Mining ASICs Technologies have also sold around 3,000 systems on pre-order (probably a safe bet) and all three expect to ship in September-October. 9,000 systems @ 250MH/s = 2,250,000MH/s. That's somewhere in the neighborhood of 2.25 TH/s being added to the network in roughly two months' time...that we can account for. The current network hashrate, as I post this? Not quite 1 TH/s...it's 896 GH/s. But at the current rate of network expansion, we're going to be 1 TH/s by the time these systems ship, easily. So...let's say we're looking at a 3.5 TH/s Litecoin network by November. What does that mean? When the Bitcoin network hit 3.5 TH/s back in May of 2011, the difficulty was around 244,000. Litecoin's difficulty is currently around 28,000. You can probably see where this is going, already. Fun with mining calculators time. Say you have one 250MH/s miner and deployed it TODAY (impossible, but for the sake of argument). You're looking at pulling in 9 LTC/day with it. If you pay $.10/kwh you're very lucky not to live in California, but we'll say that's the case. You pay around $4.50/day in power. So you walk away with $42.50 worth of Litecoin, at $5/each. If you somehow managed to freeze the network at that difficulty and the coin at that price, you'd pay off your $9,200 purchase of hardware in roughly seven months or so...or if you bought a Titan at $10,000 you're looking closer to eight. But since difficulty marches on, forget that entire concept. Now...say you get your system after all three companies have shipped and their customers have deployed them, and we've seen the network rocked to the tune of two-and-a-quarter terahashes per second. Oh, it's a rosy picture... Now, with the network difficulty having blown up to 244,000 the miner with a 250MH/s system is mining 1.03 Litecoin per day. And if my estimates are correct...this is NOVEMBER, we're talking about. At the current price of $5/LTC and $.10/kwh you are pulling down a healthy $0.80/day in profits, after power. If you again had the power to freeze the hashrate and price, you'd be able to pay off that hardware purchase in, oh...roughly 35 years. To have a REASONABLE shot at getting a return on your investment (around 5-6 months), Litecoin will need to be $70 by November and climbing steadily, in concert with network hashrate. Bear in mind, again that there is nowhere else for that hashrate to go but Litecoin. Nothing else will profit the Scrypt miner. So what will happen? There is built-in hardware cost here that has to be recouped and the only real way of doing that is by mining...and there's only one game in town for Scrypt mining: Litecoin. It's going to be a really, really wild fourth quarter for this year. Either the miners mine and hoard, decreasing supply and demand increases radically, or miners take heavy losses on hardware, can't afford to run them and the Litecoin network contracts until they CAN make money with them. In the interests of self-preservation, I have a feeling miners will start hoarding. Soon.
New people please read this. [upvote for visibility please]
I am seeing too many new people come and and getting confused. Litecoin wiki isn't the greatest when it comes to summing up things so I will try to do things as best as I can. I will attempt to explain from what I have learned and answer some questions. Hopefully people smarter than me will also chime in. I will keep this post updated as much as I can. Preface Litecoin is a type to electronic currency. It is just like Bitcoin but it there are differences. Difference explained here. If you are starting to mine now chances are that you have missed the Bitcoin mining train. If you really want your time and processing power to not go to waste you should mine LTC because the access to BTC from there is much easier. Mining. What is it? Let's get this straight. When making any financial commitment to this be prepared to do it with "throw away" money. Mining is all about the hashrate and is measured in KH/s (KiloHash/sec). Unlike the powerful ASICs (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) that are used to mine bitcoins using hashrates in the GH/s and even TH/s, litecoin mining has only been able to achieve at the very best MH/s. I think the highest I've seen is 130 MH/s so far. Which leads us to our next section. Mining Hardware While CPU mining is still a thing it is not as powerful as GPU mining. Your laptop might be able to get 1 a month. However, I encourage you to consult this list first. List of hardware comparison You will find the highest of processors can maybe pull 100 KH/s and if we put this into a litecoin mining calculator it doesn't give us much. Another reason why you don't want to mine with your CPU is pretty simple. You are going to destroy it. So this leaves us with GPUs. Over the past few months (and years) the HD 7950 has been the favourite because it drains less power and has a pretty good hashrate. But recently the introduction of the R9 290 (not the x) has changed the game a bit. People are getting 850 KH/s - 900 KH/s with that card. It's crazy. Should I mine? Honestly given the current difficulty you can make a solid rig for about $1100 with a hashrate of 1700 KH/s which would give you your investment back in about a month and a half. I am sure people out there can create something for much cheaper. Here is a good example of a setup as suggested by dystopiats PCPartPicker part list / Price breakdown by merchant / Benchmarks
Prices include shipping, taxes, and discounts when available.
Generated by PCPartPicker 2013-11-29 00:52 EST-0500
Estimated Hashrate (with GPU overclocking) : 1900 KH/s Hardware Fundamentals CPU - Do you need a powerful CPU? No but make sure it is a decent one. AMD CPUs are cheap to buy right now with tons of power. Feel free to use a Sempron or Celeron depending on what Motherboard you go with. RAM - Try to get at least 4 GB so as to not run into any trouble. Memory is cheap these days. I am saying 4 GB only because of Windoze. If you are plan to run this on Linux you can even get away with less memory. HDD Any good ol 7200 RPM hard drive will do. Make sure it is appropriate. No point in buying a 1TB hard drive. Since, this is a newbie's guide I assumed most won't know how to run linux, but incase you do you can get a USB flash drive and run linux from it thus removing the need for hard drive all toghether. (thanks dystopiats) GPU - Consult the list of hardware of hardware I posted above. Make sure you consider the KH/s/W ratio. To me the 290 is the best option but you can skimp down to 7950 if you like. PSU - THIS IS BLOODY IMPORTANT. Most modern GPUs are power hungry so please make sure you are well within the limits of your power consumption. MOTHERBOARD - Ok, so a pretty popular board right now is Gigabyte GA-990FXA-UD3 and the ASRock 970 Extreme4. Some people are even going for Gigabyte GA-990FXA-UD5 and even the mighty Gigabyte GA-990FXA-UD7 because it has more PCI-E slots. 6 to be exact. However you may not need that much. With risers you can get more shoved into less. PCI-E RISERS - These are called risers. They come in x16 to x16 and x1 to x16 connections. Here is the general rule of thumb. This is very important. Always get a POWERED riser otherwise you will burn a hole in your MoBo. A powered rise as a molex connector so that additional power from PSU can be supplied. When it comes to hardware I've provided the most basic knowledge you need. Also, take a look at cryptobader's website. This is very helpful. Please visit the mining section of Litecoin Forums and the litecoinmining subreddit for more indepth info. Mining Software Now that you have assembled your hardware now you need to get into a pool. But before you do that you need a mining software. There are many different ones but the one that is most popular is cgminer. Download it and make sure you read the README. It is a very robust piece of software. Please read this if you want to know more. (thanks BalzOnYer4Head) Mining Pools Now that your hardware and software is ready. I know nothing about solo mining other than the fact that you have to be very lucky and respectable amount of hashing power to decrypt a block. So it is better to join pools. I have been pool hopping for a bit and really liked give-me-coin previously known to the community as give-me-ltc. They have a nice mobile app and 0% pool fees. This is really a personal preference. Take a look at this list and try some yourself. How do I connect to a pool? Most pools will give you a tutorial on how to but the basics are as follows:
Signup for a pool
Create a worker for your account. Usually one worker per rig (Yes people have multiple rigs) is generally a good idea.
Create a .run file. Open up notepad and type cgminer.exe -o (address_to_the_miningpool:port_number) -u (yourusername.workername) -p (your_worker_password_if_you_made_one). Then File>Save As>runcgminer.run (Make sure the drop down is set to "All Files" and .txt document.) and save in the same folder as cgminer. That's it.
Double click on runcgminer.run (or whatever you named it) and have fun mining.
Mining Profitability This game is not easy. If it was, practically everyone would be doing it. This is strictly a numbers game and there are calculations available that can help you determine your risk on your investments. 4 variables you need to consider when you are starting to mine: Hardware cost: The cost of your physical hardware to run this whole operation. Power: Measured in $/KwH is also known as the operating cost. Difficulty rate: To put it in layman's terms the increase in difficulty is inversely proportional to amount of coin you can mine. The harder the difficulty the harder it is to mine coin. Right now difficulty is rising at about 18% per 3 days. This can and will change since all you miners are soon going to jump on the band wagon. Your sanity: I am not going to tell you to keep calm and chive on because quiet frankly that is stupid. What I will tell you not to get too carried away. You will pull you hair out. Seriously. Next thing you will need is a simple tool. A mining profitability calculator. I have two favourite ones. coinwarz I like this one cause it is simple. The fields are self explanatory. Try it. bitcoinwisdom I like this one because it is a more real life scenario calculator and more complicated one (not really). It also takes increasing difficulty into account. Please note: This is the absolute basic info you need. If you have more questions feel free to ask and or google it! More Below.
Buratino Blockchain Solutions: we have found new solutions to old problems
The market of the mining equipment continues to develop strenuously contrary to adverse conditions on the crypto exchanges. Technologies are constantly improving, increasing growth of mining profitability at the reduction of energy consumption and partly compensating negative dynamics of cryptocurrencies rates. However, it automatically increases the complexity of production of new digital coins that form request for creation of more powerful equipment. Industry is constantly changing and miners need to be able to understand modern trends of the branch. Let’s discuss market tendencies, new technology solutions capability to affect the efficiency of this business, and how exactly our team is ready to help miners. Mining market today Lets begin with the general review of the market, with emphasis on forecasts of the authoritative research companies. Analysts of the American consulting company Coherent Market Insights are convinced: in the medium term (5–10 years) mining will be profitable. Demand for the new equipment will remain high even during the crypto -markets depression. According to the last forecast of the company, by 2025 mining industry will exceed the capitalization level of $16,3 billion. The indicator of cumulative average annual growth rate (CAGR), according to experts, will grow by 18,68% from 2017 to 2025. At the time of posting, the greatest share of computing capacities has been concentrated in Asia. Experts from other large consulting company Technavio consider that the Pacific Rim will take 51% of the general growth of the industry in 2018–2022. Then the share of the Pacific Rim will be reduced below 50% level. The cause is a hard governmental line of China in relation to crypto industry. It makes miners migrate to other countries of North and South America and Eastern Europe. According to the Technavio, 33% of the market is now in the New World, but the share of the USA will grow, forcing out China. Coherent Market Insights experts are solidary with colleagues, and also give the future world leadership to North America. Improvement of production technologies of cryptocurrencies and increase in productivity of the hardware remains a key tendency of the current market. Along with it large producers of microelectronics, such as Samsung and United Microelectronics Corporation are entering the market as suppliers of hi-tech accessories. The large manufacturing companies (Bitmain Technologies, BitFury, Advanced Micro Devices, etc.) actively develop ASIC systems with bigger energy efficiency and the increased hashrate coefficients. It is important for providing the more effective mining. However alternation of generations in available lines of the equipment happens slowly that opens opportunities for new players, such as our company. According to the Coinshares company, hashrate of the only one Bitcoin network grows by 300% annually, the efficiency of chips increases by 80%, and their cost falls on average on 50%. So the profitability of digital coins production grows even in conditions of crypto rate instability with the introduction of new technologies in ASIC-mining . 74% of the mining market is the share of ASIC of all configurations in 2017. It is expected that they will continue to dominate. The process of improvement of the hardware leads to the growth of volumes of the mined coins. But the more is mined, the quicker the algorithm of generation of new blocks in the network complicates. As a result — miners need capacities to grow. Escalating levels of complexity become nearly the main factor of mining equipment market growth in the medium term. For example, analysts of Technavio predict the increase in growth rates for 2018 by 9,04%. Increase in productivity as natural selection To be a successful miner means always to work proactively. Anyone who first manages to use more productive mining systems also remains in a prize or at least in the market. The Forbes.ru magazine describes how the market of a mining is affected by the generation of more productive machines. All of us remember the last year's agiotage around the first ASIC systems for Dash cryptocurrency. Before it was mined only on video cards and brought the monthly income of $1-1,5 thousand from one farm. New miner (DM11G from iBeLink, Antminer D3 from Bitmain and DR-100 from Pinidea) promised income from $5 thousand from each installation. Those who the first have managed to connect ASIC to Dash network succeeded the most. Their monthly income has made about $6 thousand, but it was not for a long time. The rapid growth of the number of ASIC devices in the network has provoked the same fast increase in complexity of calculations. Therefore the payback period of one ASIC system has increased from 3-4 to 12 months. As a result, by the end of 2017, the profitability of Dash mining has decreased almost by 3 times (in comparison with September of the same year). In completion to everything, the Dash rate has fallen off in spring 2018. Production of cryptocurrency is favorable only to those who quickly reacts to the production of the new hardware. Only being guided by new generation equipment or modernizing old ones it is possible not to lose. Recent leaders VS perspective beginners BitFury and Bitmain remain recognized leaders in the global market in summer 2018. BitFury generally specializes in providing mining decisions under specific projects. Bitmain, on the contrary, is guided by production and sale of the ready-made mining systems. Today the market is rather highly consolidated and more than a half of all computing capacities belongs to largest companies. Nevertheless, Coherent Market Insights analysts consider that in the near future deconsolidation of branch due to the appearance of new players is expected. This segment is also interesting to us. With the support of the community on ICO, we will be able to impose market competition to the acting leaders. Just because present devices have a number of problems which are still not solved by anyone except for us. Support of the only one cryptocurrency, the impossibility of the partial modification, high noise level, high costs of cooling and a lot of things still. Everything remains unresolved. We plan to put on the market the multi-mining system of the new generation Papa Carlo. The equipment surpasses competitors in all key indicators: energy efficiency, productivity, customizability, the number of coins, etc. With our development, it will be not just ASIC anymore, but the first real multi-miner, allowing to get fifteen digital currencies on the most popular algorithms SHA-256 and SCRYPT. It is difficult to overestimate the potential of such a product. Papa Carlo is capable to take the worthy place in the market of the CIS and the whole world. It is enough to compare our technological product to the acting leader of sales - Antminer s9, to estimate all range of advantages of Papa Carlo. Compare several key indicators of Papa Carlo and Antminer s9: hashrate of Papa Carlo – 26 Th/s, Antminer s9 – 13,5 Th/s; Papa Carlo processors – 10 nanometers, Antminer s9 – 16 nanometers; the number of Papa Carlo chips – 210, Antminer s9 – 189; energy efficiency of Papa Carlo – 0,065 J/Gh, Antminer s9 – 0,1 J/Gh; Papa Carlo noise level – 35-45 dB, Antminer s9 – 75-80 dB. Conclusion Papa Carlo is a high-performance equipment which can compete with leaders of the market. Our Buratino Blockchain Solutions company provides its development and service. The issue of own token will allow attracting the capital for scaling of business and distribution our multi-miner. Everyone who wishes to receive exclusive privileges from the producer at a stage of the closed sales can join our tokensale.
So I got alittle lucky last week, I had 30 remaining $ in my bitcoin wallet, I've had them for months. I found a bitcoin betting website, I deposited $10, Turned it into $300. Cashed out, I ordered 2 Antminer S3+'s with a 1000W HP server power supply kit with wiring/adapter for the miners. Electricity costs me .08$/kWh, $10 invested, How accurate are bitcoin miner calculators? Like coinwarz for example, you can insert difficulty, electricity costs, watts, and GH/s, Based off that calculator, I'm looking at $27 a month profit, Which is next to nothing. But it costs me $10 to start so who cares right? Does anyone have any tips for someone new to it (I've followed bitcoins and mining a bit but never done it) Also any pool advice for when I get my miners?
bitcoin mining profitable in the US? Where are my calculations off?
Someone tell me where my calculations are wrong. Amazon has this miner advertised: Antminer S9 ~14.0TH/s @ .098W/GH 16nm ASIC Bitcoin Miner So that would consume 14000*0.98=1372 watts. Given my electricity costs (0.12 $/kwhr), I would make $8.19 for every $1 of electricity. In a month, I would make $884. That can't be right. Where did I screw up? Here is a python script to calculate that:
edit: thanks to Personthingman2. 25 vs 12.5 block reward. when I change that, my script outputs: rev=0.000194444444444 cost=4.74798641087e-05 ratio=4.09530330582 profit per month=380.93219223 This is a $4000 unit, so it pays for itself in 10 months. OK. So whether I will ever make money on this depends heavily on the growth of the network hashing rate over time, and the increase in BTC price. edit2: I am guessing that the answer to my question is that I would be lucky for the unit to keep working long enough to pay for itself. It would likely break down before reaching that point.
Authored by Valentin Schmid via The Epoch Times, While the price of bitcoin drops, miners get more creative... and some flourish. The bitcoin price is crashing; naysayers and doomsayers are having a field day. The demise of the dominant cryptocurrency is finally happening — or is it? Bitcoin has been buried hundreds of times, most notably during the brutal 90 percent decline from 2013 to 2015. And yet it has always made a comeback. Where the skeptics are correct: The second bitcoin bubble burst in December of last year and the price is down roughly 80 percent from its high of $20,000. Nobody knows whether and when it will see these lofty heights again. As a result, millions of speculators have been burned, and big institutions haven’t showed up to bridge the gap. This also happened on a smaller scale in 2013 after a similar 100x run-up, and it was necessary.
Time to Catch Up
What most speculators and even some serious proponents of the independent and decentralized monetary system don’t understand: Bitcoin needs these pauses to make improvements in its infrastructure. Exchanges, which could not handle the trading volumes at the height of the frenzy and did not return customer service inquiries, can take a breather and upgrade their systems and hire capable people. The technology itself needs to make progress and this needs time. Projects like the lightning network, a system which delivers instant bitcoin payments at very little cost and at virtually unlimited scale is now only available to expert programmers. A higher valuation is only justified if these improvements reach the mass market. And since we live in a world where everything financial is tightly regulated, for better or worse, this area also needs to catch up, since regulators are chronically behind the curve of technological progress. And of course, there is bitcoin mining. The vital infrastructure behind securing the bitcoin network and processing its transactions has been concentrated in too few hands and in too few places, most notably China, which still hosts about 70 percent of the mining capacity.
The Case For Mining
Critics have always complained that bitcoin mining consumes “too much” electricity, right now about as much as the Czech Republic. In energy terms this is around 65 terawatt hours or 230,000,000 gigajoules, costing $3.3 billion dollars according to estimates by Digiconomist. For the non-physicists among us, this is around as much as consumed by six million energy-guzzling U.S. households per year. All those estimates are imprecise because the aggregate cannot know how much energy each of the different bitcoin miners consumes and how much that electricity costs. But they are a reasonable rough estimate. So it’s worth exploring why mining is necessary to begin with and whether the electricity consumption is justified. Anything and everything humans do consumes resources. The question then is always: Is it worth it? And: Who decides? This question then leads to the next question: Is it worth having and using money? Most people would argue yes, because using money instead of barter in fact makes economic transactions faster and cheaper and thus saves resources, natural and human. _Merchants exchange goods with the inhabitants of Tidore, Indonesia, circa 1550. Barter was supplanted by using money because it is more efficient. (Archive/Getty Images)_If we are generously inclined, we will grant bitcoin the status of a type of money or at least currency as it meets the general requirements of being recognizable, divisible, portable, durable, is accepted in exchange for other goods and services, and in this case it is even limited in supply. So having any type of money has a price, whether it’s gold, dollar bills, or numbers on the screen of your online banking system. In the case of bitcoin, it’s the electricity and the capital for the computing equipment, as well as the human resources to run these operations. If we think having money in general is a good idea and some people value the decentralized and independent nature of bitcoin then it would be worth paying for verifying transactions on the bitcoin network as well as keeping the network secure and sound: Up until the point where the resources consumed would outweigh the efficiency benefits. Just like most people don’t think it’s a bad idea to use credit cards and banks, which consume electricity too. However, bitcoin is a newcomer and this is why it’s being scrutinized even more so than the old established players.
Different Money, Different Costs
How many people know how much electricity, human lives, and other resources gold mining consumes or has consumed in the course of history? What about the banking system? Branches, servers, air-conditioning, staff? What about printing dollar notes and driving them around in armored trucks? What about the social effects of monetary mismanagement of bank and government money like inflation as well as credit deflations? Gold gets a pass here. Most people haven’t asked that question, which is why it’s worth pointing out the only comprehensive study done on the topic in 2014. In “An Order of Magnitude” the engineer Hass McCook analyzes the different money systems and reaches mind-boggling conclusions. The study is a bit dated and of course the aggregations are also very rough estimates, but the ball park numbers are reasonable and the methodology sound. In fact, according to the study, bitcoin is the most economic of all the different forms of money. Gold mining in 2014 used 475 million GJ, compared to bitcoin’s 230 million in 2018. The banking system in 2014 used 2.3 billion gigajoules. Over 100 people per year die trying to mine gold. But mining costs more than electricity. It consumes around 300,000 liters of water per kilogram of gold mined as well as 150 kilogram (330 pounds) of cyanide and 1500 tons of waste and rubble. The international banking system has been used in all kinds of fraudulent activity throughout history: terrorist financing, money laundering, and every other criminal activity under the sun at a cost of trillions of dollars and at an order of magnitude higher than the same transactions done with cryptocurrency and bitcoin. And of course, while gold has a relatively stable value over time, our bank and government issued money lost about 90 percent of its purchasing power over the last century, because it can be created out of thin air. This leads to inflation and a waste of physical and human resources because it distorts the process of capital allocation. _The dollar has lost more than 90 percent of its value since the creation of the Federal Reserve in 1913. (Source: St. Louis Fed)_This is on top of the hundreds of thousands of bank branches, millions of ATMs and employees which all consume electricity and other resources, 10 times as much electricity alone as the bitcoin network. According to monetary philosopher Saifedean Ammous, author of “The Bitcoin Standard,” the social benefit of hard money, i.e. money that can’t be printed by government decree, cannot even be fathomed; conversely, the true costs of easy money—created by government fiat and bank credit—are difficult to calculate. According to Ammous, bitcoin is the hardest money around, even harder than gold because its total supply is capped, whereas the gold supply keeps increasing at about 1-2 percent every year. “Look at the era of the classical gold standard, from 1871, the end of the Franco–Prussian War, until the beginning of World War I. There’s a reason why this is known as the Golden Era, the Gilded Age, and La Belle Epoque. It was a time of unrivaled human flourishing all over the world. Economic growth was everywhere. Technology was being spread all over the world. Peace and prosperity were increasing everywhere around the world. Technological innovations were advancing. “I think this is no coincidence. What the gold standard allowed people to do is to have a store of value that would maintain its value in the future. And that gave people a low time preference, that gave people the incentive to think of the long term, and that made people want to invest in things that would pay off over the long term … bitcoin is far closer to gold. It is a digital equivalent of gold,” he said in an interview with The Epoch Times. Of course, contrary to the gold standard that Ammous talks about, bitcoin doesn’t have a track record of being sound money in practice. In theory it meets all the criteria, but in the real world it hasn’t been adopted widely and has been so volatile as to be unusable as a reliable store of value or as the underlying currency of a productive lending market. The proponents argue that over time, these problems will be solved the same way gold spread itself throughout the monetary sphere replacing copper and seashells, but even Ammous concedes the process may take decades and the outcome is far from certain. Gold is the safe bet for sound money, bitcoin has potential. There is another measure where bitcoin loses out, according to a recent study by researchers from the Oak Ridge Institute in Cincinnati, Ohio. It is the amount of energy expended per dollar for different monetary instruments. One dollar worth of bitcoin costs 17 megajoules to mine versus five for gold and seven for platinum. But the study omits the use of cyanide, water, and other physical resources in mining physical metals. In general, the comparisons in dollar terms go against bitcoin because it is worth relatively less, only $73 billion in total at the time of writing. An issue that could be easily fixed at a higher price, but a higher price is only justified if the infrastructure improves, adoption increases, volatility declines, and the network proves its resilience to attacks over time. In the meantime, market participants still value the fact they can own a currency independent of the government, completely digital, easily fungible, and limited in supply, and relatively decentralized. And the market as a whole is willing to pay a premium for these factors reflected in the higher per dollar prices for mining bitcoin.
The Creativity of Bitcoin Mining
But where bitcoin mining lacks in scale, it makes up for it in creativity. In theory—and in practice—bitcoin mining can be done anywhere where there is cheap electricity. So bitcoin mining operations can be conducted not where people are (banking) or where government is (fiat cash) or where gold is (gold mining)—it can be done everywhere where there is cheap electricity Some miners are flocking to the heat of the Texan desert where gas is virtually available for free, thanks to another oil revolution. Other miners go to places where there is cheap wind, water, or other renewable energy. This is because they don’t have to build bank branches, printing presses, and government buildings, or need to put up excavators and conveyor belts to dig gold out of the ground. All they need is internet access and a home for the computers that look like a shipping container, each one of which has around 200 specialized bitcoin mining computers in them. “The good thing about bitcoin mining is that it doesn’t matter where on earth a transaction happens, we can verify it in our data center here. The miners are part of the decentralized philosophy of bitcoin, it’s completely independent of your location as well,” said Moritz Jäger, chief technology officer at bitcoin Mining company Northern Bitcoin AG.
But so far, this decentralization hasn’t worked out as well as it sounds in theory. Because Chinese local governments had access to subsidized electricity, it was profitable for officials to cut deals with bitcoin mining companies and supply them with cheap electricity in exchange for jobs and cutbacks. Sometimes the prices were as low as 2 dollar cents to 4 dollar cents per kilowatt hour. This is why the majority of bitcoin mining is still concentrated in China (around 70 percent) where it was the most profitable, but only because the Chinese central planners subsidized the price of electricity. This set up led to the by and large unwanted result that the biggest miner of bitcoin, a company called Bitmain, is also the biggest manufacturer of specialized computing equipment for bitcoin mining. The company reported revenues of $2.8 billion for the first half of 2018. Tourists walk on the dunes near a power plant in Xiangshawan Desert in Ordos of Inner Mongolia, in this file photo. bitcoin miners have enjoyed favorable electricity rates in places like Ordos for a long time. (Feng Li/Getty Images)Centralized mining is a problem because whenever there is one player or a conglomerate of players who control more than 50 percent of the network computing power, they could theoretically crash the network by spending the same bitcoin twice, the so called “double spending problem.“ They don’t have an incentive to do so because it would probably ruin the bitcoin price and their business, but it’s better not to have to rely on one group of people controlling an entire money system. After all, we have that exact same system with central banking and bitcoin was set up as a decentralized alternative. So far, no player or conglomerate ever reached that 51 percent threshold, at least not since bitcoin’s very early days, but many market participants always thought Bitmain’s corner of the market is a bit too close for comfort. This favorable environment for Chinese bitcoin mining has been changing with a crack down on local government electricity largess as well as a crackdown on cryptocurrency. Bitcoin itself and mining bitcoin remain legal in China but cryptocurrency exchanges have been banned since late 2017. But more needs to be done for bitcoin to become independent of the caprice of a centralized oppressive regime and local government bureaucrats.
Northern Bitcoin Case Study
Enter Northern Bitcoin AG. The company isn’t the only one which is exploring mining opportunities with renewable energies in locations other than China. But it is special because of the extraordinary set up it has for its operations, the fact that it is listed on the stock exchange in Germany, and the opportunities for scaling it discovered. The operations of Northern Bitcoin combine the beauties of bitcoin and capitalism in one. Like Texas has a lot of oil and free gas and it makes sense to use the gas rather than burn it, Norway has a lot of water, especially water moving down the mountains due to rainfall and melting snow. And it makes sense to use the power of the movement of the water, channel it through pipes into generators to create very cheap and almost unlimited electricity. Norway generates north of 95 percent of its total electricity from hydropower. A waterfall next to a hydropowerplant near Sandane, Norway, Oct. 25, 2018. (Valentin Schmid/The Epoch Times)Capitalism does not distinguish between renewable and fossil. It uses what is the most expedient. In this case, it is clearly water in Norway, and gas in Texas. As a side note on the beauties of real capital and the fact that capital and the environment need not be enemies, the water in one of the hydropowerplants close to the Northern Bitcoin facility is piped through a generator made in 1920 by J.M. Voith AG, a company from Heidenheim Germany. The company was established in 1867 and is still around today. The generator was produced in 1920 and is still producing electricity today.
In the remote regions of Northern Norway, there aren’t that many people or industry who would use the electricity. And rather than transport it over hundreds of miles to the industrial centers of Europe, the industries of the future are moving to Norway to the source of the cheap electricity. Of course, it is not just bitcoin mining, but other data and computing heavy operations like server farms for cloud computing that can be neatly packaged into one of those containers and shipped up north. “The containers are beautiful. They are produced in the middle of Germany where the hardware is enabled and tested. Then we put it on a truck and send it up here. When the truck arrives on the outside we lift it on the container vehicle. Two hours after the container arrives, it’s in the container rack. And 40 hours later we enable the cooling, network, power, other systems, and it’s online,” said Mats Andersson, a spokesman for the Lefdal Mine data center in Måløy, Norway, where Northern Bitcoin has its operations. Plug and play. A Northern Bitcoin data container inside the Lefdal Mine data center, in Måløy, Norway. (Northern Bitcoin)If the cheap electricity wasn’t enough—around 5 cents per kilowatt hour compared to 17 cents in Germany—Norway also provides the perfect storage for these data containers, which are normally racked up in open air parks above the ground. Also here, the resource allocation is beautiful. Instead of occupying otherwise useful and beautiful parcels of land and nature, the Northern Bitcoin containers and others are stored in the old Lefdal olivine mine. Olivine is a mineral used for steel production and looks green. Very fitting. Hence also the name of the data center: Lefdal Mine. “We take the green mineral out and we take the green IT in,” said Andersson.
Using the old mine as storage for the data center makes the whole process even more resource efficient. Why? So far, we’ve only been talking about bitcoin mining using a lot of energy. But what for? Before you have actually seen the process in action—and it is similar for other computing operations—you cannot imagine how bizarre it is. Most of the electricity is used to prevent the computers from overheating. So it’s not even the processors themselves; it’s the fans which cool the computer that use the most juice. This is where the mine helps, because it’s rather cool 160 meters (525 feet) below sea level; certainly cooler than in the Texas desert. But it gets even better. On top of the air blow-cooling the computer, the Lefdal data center uses a fresh water system to pump through the containers in pipes. The fans can then circulate air over the cool pipes which transfer the heat to the water. One can feel the difference when touching the different pipes. The fresh water closed circle loop then completes the “green” or resource efficiency cycle by transferring its heat to ice cold water from the nearby Fjord. The water is sucked in through a pipe from the Fjord, the heat gets transferred without the water being mixed, and the water flows back to the Fjord, without any impact on the environment. To top it all off, the mine has natural physical security far better than open air data centers and is even protected from an electromagnetic pulse blast because it’s underground.
_The Nordfjord near Måløy, Norway. The Lefdal data center takes the cold water from the fjord and uses it to cool the computer inside the mine. (Valentin Schmid/The Epoch Times)_Company Dynamics
Given this superlative set up, Northern Bitcoin wants to ramp up production as fast as possible at the Lefdal mine and other similar places in Norway, which have more mountains where data centers can be housed. At the moment, Northern Bitcoin has 15 containers with 210 mining machines each. The 15 containers produce around 5 bitcoin per day at a total cost of around $2,500 dollars at the end of November 2018 and after the difficulty of solving the math problems went down by ~17 percent. Most of it is for electricity; the rest is for leasing the containers, renting the mine space, buying and writing off the mining computers, personnel, overhead, etc. Even at the current relatively depressed prices of around $4000, that’s a profit of $1500 per bitcoin or $7,500 per day. But the goal is to ramp it up to 280 containers until 2019, producing 100 bitcoin per day. Again, the company is in the sweet spot to do this. As opposed to the beginning of the year when one could not procure a mining computer from Bitmain even if one’s life depended on it, the current bear market has made them cheap and relatively available both new and second had from miners who had to cease operations because they can’t produce at low bitcoin prices. Northern Bitcoin containers inside the Lefdal Mine data center in Måløy, Norway. (Northern Bitcoin)What about the data shipping containers? They are manufactured by a company called Rittal who is the world market leader. So it helps that the owner of Rittal also owns 30 percent of the Lefdal mine, providing preferential access to the containers. Northern Bitcoin said it has enough capital available for the intermediate goal of ramping up to 50 containers until the end of year but may tap the capital markets again for the next step. The company can also take advantage of the lower German corporate tax rate because revenue is only recorded when the bitcoin are sold in Germany, not when they are mined in Norway. Of course, every small-cap stock—especially bitcoin companies—have their peculiarities and very high risks. As an example, Northern Bitcoin’s financial statements, although public, aren’t audited. The equipment in the Lefdal mine in Norway is real and the operations are controlled by the Lefdal personnel, but one has to rely on exclusive information from the company for financials and cost figures, so buyer beware.
Northern Bitcoin wants to have 280 containers, representing around 5 percent of the network’s computing power. But the Lefdal mine alone has a capacity to power and cool 1,500 containers in a 200 megawatt facility, once it is fully built out. “Here you have all the space, power, and cooling that you need. … Here you can grow,” said Lefdal’s Andersson. A mine shaft in the Lefdal Mine data center in Måløy, Norway. The whole mine will have a capacity for 1500 containers once fully built out. (Valentin Schmid/The Epoch Times)The Norwegian government was behind an initiative to bring computing power to Norway and make it one of the prime destinations for data centers at the beginning of this decade. To that effect, the local governments own part of the utility companies which operate the power plants and own part of the Lefdal Mine and other locations. But even without notable subsidies (i.e. cash payments to companies), market players were able to figure it out, for everybody’s benefit. The utilities win because they can sell their cheap electricity close to home. The computing companies like IBM and Northern Bitcoin win because they can get cheap electricity, storage, and security. Data center operators like Lefdal win because they can charge rent for otherwise unused and unneeded space. However, in a recent about face, the central government in Oslo has decided to remove cryptocurrency miners from the list of companies which pay a preferential tax rate on electricity consumption. Normally, energy intensive companies, including data centers, pay a preferential tax on electricity consumed of 0.48 øre ($0.00056 ). According to a report by Norwegian media Aftenposten, this tax will rise to 16.58 øre ($0.019) in 2019 for cryptocurrency miners exclusively. The argument by left wing politician Lars Haltbrekken who sponsored the initiative: “Norway cannot continue to provide huge tax incentives for the most dirty form of cryptocurrency output […] [bitcoin] requires a lot of energy and generates large greenhouse gas emissions globally.” Since Norway generates its electricity using hydro, precisely the opposite is true: No greenhouse gas emissions, or any emissions for that matter would be produced, if all cryptomining was done in Norway. As opposed to China, where mining is done with coal and with emissions. But not only in Norway is the share of renewable and emission free energy high. According to research by Coinshares, Bitcoin’s consumes about 77.6 percent of its energy in the form of renewables globally. However self-defeating the arguments against bitcoin mining in Norway, the political initiative is moving forward. What it means for Northern Bitcoin is not clear, as they house their containers in Lefdal’s mixed data center, which also has other clients, like IBM. “It’s not really decided yet; there are still big efforts from IT sectors and parties who are trying to change it. If the decision is taken it might apply for pure crypto sites rather than mixed data centers, like ours,” said Lefdal’s Andersson. Even in the worst-case scenario, it would mean an increase from ~5 cents to ~6.9 cents per kilowatt hour, or 30 percent more paid on the electricity by Northern Bitcoin, which at ~$3250 would still rank it among the most competitive producers in the world. Coinshares estimates the average production price at $6,800 per Bitcoin at $0,05 per kilowatt hour of electricity and an 18-months depreciation schedule, but concedes that a profitable miner could “[depreciate] mining gear over 24-30 months, or [pay] less for mining gear than our estimates.” Jäger says Northern Bitcoin depreciates the equipment over three years and has obtained very favorable prices from Bitmain, making its production much more competitive than the average despite the same cost of electricity. In addition, the natural cooling in the mine also reduces electricity costs overall.
Cheap Producer Advantage
At the moment, however, the tax could be the least of any miners worry, as the bitcoin price is in free-fall. But what happens when the price crashes further? Suffice it to say that there was bitcoin mining when the dollar price was less than 1 cent and there will be bitcoin mining at lower prices thanks to the design of the network. Mao Shixing, the founder of mining pool F2pool estimated 600,000 miners have shut down since the November crash in price, according to a report by Coindesk. As it should be in a competitive system, the most energy intensive and obsolete machines are shut down first. As with every other commodity, when the price drops, some miners will leave the market, leaving space for cheaper competitors to capture a bigger share. But with bitcoin this is a bit simpler than with copper or gold for example. When a big copper player goes bankrupt, its competitors have to ramp up production and increase cost to increase their market share. With bitcoin, if 3,000 computers get taken off the total mining pool, they won’t be able to mine the approximately 5 bitcoin any longer. However, because the difficulty of solving the computationally intensive cryptographic tasks of bitcoin decreases automatically when there are fewer computers engaged in the task, the other players just have to leave their machines running at the same rate for the same cost and they will split the 5 bitcoin among them. “The moment the price goes down, our production price will go down as well,” said Jäger, a process that already happened from November to December when the difficulty decreased twice in November and the beginning of December. This naturally favors players like Northern Bitcoin, which are producing at the lower end of the cost spectrum. They will be the ones who shut down last. And this is a good thing. The more companies like Northern Bitcoin, and countries like Norway—even with the extra tax—the more decentralized the bitcoin system. The more computers there are in different hands mining bitcoin, the more secure the system becomes, because it will be ever more difficult for one player to reach the 50 percent threshold to crash the system.It is this decentralized philosophy which has kept the bitcoin system running for 10 years. Whether at $1 or $20,000.
Chill everyone, let's talk bitcoin internals, fundamentals and what it means for price.
So I've been watching bitcoin for a couple weeks, and i got a bit of my own dough into it. Of recent everybody seems obsessed with the vast accumulation of wealth in the hands of few, and the hordes of panicky upstarts trying to get in, who might get screwed by falling prices (for instance see this lovely post Hyperbole Now I'm not saying that the doomsday scenario the prophets are peddling is impossible. But it's about as possible as the wonderland prophets who're hoping for a 100'0000% return. Trojans On a related note, yeah some trojan started targeting wallet.dat, surprise surprise. Incidentally, that the same machine you're making VISA payments from and operate your e-banking? You worried about that too? Not? Well I don't see VISA shares falling every time somebody infects himself with a keylogger. Pricing So I thought a fair bit about where prices are going to go, and why, and I asked a lot of people and talked this over, and after this, a few things remain that give some direction. A price of a security (like bitcoins, or gold, stocks, fiat money etc.) is ultimately determined by supply and demand. If you understand supply and demand, you understand prices. So an important consideration is who's bidding for bitcoins, and who's asking for a price to sell them, and what prices to these parties consider reasonable. Buyers (bid) This is a diverse group of people, it may include people who use the small but fledgling bitcoin economy to buy coins to pay other people in them. But by far and large, it's probably a speculation driven market, people buy bitcoins in the hopes the value will rise. The psychology speculative buying ends up being about a zero-sum game. Somebody buys, somebody sells, the overall activity neither adds or removes coins from the market, and hence when viewed over long periods (months/years) this activity is just white-noise. This defines the demand, and demand rises and falls with bitcoin popularity and confidence. Some week confidence may be low, some it may be high. Sellers (ask) This roughly falls into two camps. The speculative sellers and the miners. Speculative selling (that is sells of coins bought earlier) is the other half of the zero-sum game, it neither adds or removes coins overall, and is hence just white noise. Freshly minted coins (by miners) which enter the market are the real driver of supply. The limited and small constant supply myth Every 10 minutes 50 new bitcoins are found. That is a fact, and if it strays from that, the difficulty adjusts to keep it there. If you look at it purely from the point of view of scarcity, this would seem a small (but nearly ignorable) inflationary influence. This however would be an over-simplification. There are substantial amounts of mined coins held by people who've been mining them for the better part of a year. They've been hoarding these coins, and commonly I'd refer to this group as bitcoinionaires. Their actually supply capacity vastly exceeds the day to day supply of fresh coins. Since these stockpiles are the real driver of the supply, it's important to understand when the miners/bitcoinonaires will sell and when they will not. Mining economics The mined bitcoins where obtained by the activity you call mining. This is neither an easy nor free way to get coins. It takes energy, room, time to setup, etc. There are constant costs attached to this (paying rent and electricity) as well as recoverable costs (buying hardware to do it) and unquantifiable costs (work rendered to make it all happen). You can think of mining as a business that has expenses and profits. In order for that business to work, the constant expenses must be covered, the recoverable expenses must be recoverable, and the work invested must be repaid. This all leads to a fairly straightforward calculation which goes something like this: You pay around 1000$ for one 1gh/s (one gigahash per second) in hardware. Running that hardware you pay about 2-3$/day/gh in energy. If you factor in rent of some or another form, you probably pay between 1-5$/day/gh in rent. If you also factor in resale value decay of the hardware you bought, you immediately lose about 20% upon buying the hardware, and around 30%/year. As a business you probably plan to run your miner for more then half a year, so about 50% of the hardware cost has to be recovered in a reasonable time-frame, say 3 months. Which means there's a hardware recovery calculation that you should do that factors in at about 2$/day/gh If you sum that all up, you get a running cost of mining that is around 5-10$/day/gh. One gigahash will get you about 1.2btc/day at current difficulty, which is at current prices somewhere around 17-20$. It is fairly obvious that your expenses need to be lower then your profits. If they are not, what happens? Difficulty You may have heard about difficulty, in essence it is a constant value (for 2 weeks) that aims to keep the rate of fresh coins at about 50coins/10minutes. Obviously, the more difficult it gets, the less coins 1 gh/s will mint, and the more difficult the economy of a mining business becomes. miner psychology Since you can't simply acquire and sell hardware capacity on a dime (it takes weeks and months to do it), and since you will need months to recover your boot costs, miner selling is out of necessity a long-term affair. So what can a miner do when the price of btcs falls below their operational cost?
They can give up mining, much to the delight of everyboy who has not given up, because if they do, the difficulty will go down, hence making their business profitable again. This is essentially an inflationary influence (since btcs get easier to obtain with lowering difficulty, hence making miners willing to sell at lower prices).
They can stop selling, hoping for better times when the prices are more favorable. This is essentially a deflationary influence, since the big stockpile supply of coins held by miners will simply dry out. They'll not sell for months and perhaps years.
They can sell at prices below their operation cost, in which case they soon cease to be a factor, because they're out of business.
bitcoinionaire psychology If prices go down and you sit on a big pile of coins, you lose wealth. Nobody likes loosing wealth, I don't like it, you don't like it, the bitcoinionaires don't like it. In order to become a bitcoinionaire you need to be a hoarder. If you wouldn't hoard, you wouldn't have tens of thousands of bitcoins. A hoarder essentially never likes letting go of his stash. You get rid of as little of your stash as possible to keep your risk and costs in a reasonable balance. Which means, these fat-cats depicted in the picture above, they didn't sell you all they had, not even a fraction. They sold you just about as much as they where personally willing to sacrifice. This means that they're still having the majority of their wealth in the game, and they absolutely do not want to see that devalued to zero. I've talked to a bunch of these very decent folks, and their sentiment is that they're in for the long haul. True they'll sell "big" positions occasionally, but they keep the majority of their assets stashed away. If you're expecting the miners/bitcoinionaires to suddenly explode with supply at lowering prices, you're most likely mistaken. the difficulty/price correlation For the reasons outlined above, there's a very simple correlation. If prices go down and difficulty goes up, by far and large supply dries out. However lower prices drive demand (in bitcoin volume) up, because as the price goes down, the buying power (in $/btc) of the would-be buyers increases. And if the market self-balancing fails, then the difficulty adjust will step in once enough miners have given up. In sum these dynamics lead to deflation. Since difficulty and hardware turnover moves at a much slower pace then prices, prices are far more likely to adjust to difficulty then the other way around in the long term. What does all of this mean? Keep a cool head, and don't let the market fool you. Trust your fundamentals, technicals and sentiment analysis, and tightly control your risk only to what you personally can afford to lose. If you buy in a mania or sell in a panic (we've see both the past 2 weeks), you're probably going to lose (or diminish your profits). Study bitcoin and what drives it carefully and come to your own conclusion. Adjust your strategy carefully and maybe, one day a couple years from now, you can be a bitcoinionaire. If not, life is full of other opportunities, so just pick yourself up and try the next. So chill everyone, and have a good time :)
Sometime mid next week (Jan 19-21) I should have ~$5,000-6,000 in PayPal. I am looking to buy 5 S1's direct from BitMain. I've got a few questions/concerns however. The biggest concern right now is being able to buy $5,000 of bitcoin, using PayPal. I'm 16, so withdrawing all that money to my student checking account is a no-go. My mom also doesn't want to give PayPal her tax ID, and credit card so she has unlimited withdrawing capabilities. I plan on asking around the Chicago Bitcoin Meetup if anyone there would be able to sell me that much Bitcoin, and for PayPal or something along those lines. After I get the bitcoins, and the S1's delivered, any advice on keeping them cool, and clean? They'll probably go in my basement, and I'm thinking about some kind of horizontal rack, and cooling system. I'd like to overclock them to 208 gh/s. One of my friends has built a LN2 creator before, and was talking to me about possibly doing this for all my BTC miners, so we could further overclock them, increasing profitability. I'd expect some kind of decent ROI with this setup, and yes current profiribility calculators will probably tell you I won't make much, but I'm gonna go out on a limb and assume Bitcoins will be at, or over $1,000 a pop by SeptembeOctober of 2014. I also plan on using Coinwarz and mine the most profitable coin each day, and sell via cryptsy. I'll also just save some bitcoins for the future. What kind of PSU's should I get for 5 of these bad-boys? Would 2 1050w PSU's and then another 700w one be alright? My friend, who bought an Avalon Asic Batch 2 last year for ~$1,500 made a great ROI, and he is doing the same exact thing I am with this project. Except that he might end up with 10 S1's, while I'll have 5 of them. If anyone has any advice for me, I'd love to hear it. I've been following Bitcoin very heavily sense I first herd about it in 2008 (It was only $2 a pop when I just went on #otc) but this will be my very first mining rig of my own. I've mined of my GPU/CPU using various coins, along with my usb asic, but this will be a large project/rig.
Overview - Table of Contents Introduction to Earning in Bitcoin Work for Bitcoin Sell for Bitcoin Affiliate Programs Gambling Bitcoin Mining Hardware Mining Cloud Mining Introduction to Earning in Bitcoin Bitcoin is the most popular digital currency in the world today. Bitcoin cloud mining is the fastest way to immediately begin earning bitcoins. Bitcoin is built using very complicated cryptographic principles, and supported by countless individuals and companies from all around the world. By early 2016, total Bitcoin market capitalization had crossed USD 7 Billion, making it almost as valuable as the GDP of a small country like Bahamas. All the other digital currencies together do not constitute even 20% of Bitcoin’s market capitalization, underlining the its dominance and importance in the world of digital currencies. With such a huge amount of world’s capital available in the form of Bitcoins, the number and types of opportunities to earn in bitcoins are increasing by the day. In this article we will discuss such opportunities that help us earn bitcoins. We will start with the easiest, or the one that is applicable for the maximum number of people, and then move to the tougher ones. In the end we will cover earning bitcoins by mining. Bitcoin mining is not an easy way to earn bitcoins, but we do have a number of easier ones we will discuss first. So lets start with ‘earning bitcoins by offering your services’ Work for Bitcoin Perhaps the easiest way to earn bitcoins is to work online or in real life for bitcoins. Because of the huge size of the bitcoin eco-system, a number of such opportunities and jobs are available. With Billions of dollars invested in Bitcoin by tens of thousands of people, there is a real market in Bitcoin, where you can find jobs for freelancers, software developers, writers, and others who get paid in bitcoins for their services. Software development, writing, design, making websites or apps, audio transcription, are some of the most active types of jobs. You can easily discover the types of jobs by going over the more popular job boards for bitcoin related work. The following job boards or forums are some of the best places to look for such jobs or gigs. Freelancing XBTfreelancer Cryptogrind Bitlancerr Coinality Bitgigs Jobs4Bitcoins Rein Project Crypto Jobs List Market Places OpenBazaar Purse.io Bitify /bitmarket 21 Market Video Streaming Watchmybit Streamium.io Tasks Bitasker BitforTip WillPayCoin File/Image Sharing Supload.com SatoshiBox JoyStream Advertising CoinAd A-ads Coinzilla.io Also, check BitcoinGames for ideas on earning bitcoin and blockchain game assets. Sell for bitcoin You can also get Bitcoin by selling your old laptops, phones or other items for Bitcoins. Such types of transactions are happening more and more, and a lot of buyers are already buying anything from iPhones to even cars by paying with Bitcoins. For Americans, Craigslist.com is your best bet when you want to find such buyers. You can mention in your ad that you are willing to take payment in Bitcoin. This way if anyone wants to buy the item for you for Bitcoin, they can contact you and make an offer. The same principle applies to other online marketplaces such as gumtree for UK, kijiji for canda etc. Affiliate Programs Affiliate programs allow a promoter of a business or product to earn money or bitcoins by refering new clients to such businesses or products. For example, amazon.com has a popular affiliate program, where you can earn commission ranging from 2% to 20% for refering clients to products listed on amazon.com. Amazon normally pays in dollars, but there are a number of other sites and businesses which pay you in bitcoin for acting as their affiliate. Some of the more popular affiliate programs that pay out in Bitcoin are by the sites: cex.io, coinbase.com, okcoin.com and namecheap.com, among others. You can find a larger list of such affiliate programs on the bitcoin wiki page for Affiliates. Gambling We do not recommend gambling for every player or every user; we find that gambling is only suitable for people who know how to win at it. However, if you are one of such lucky users who have some tricks up their sleeves, and can manage to win at games such as poker, then you will find that earning bitcoins is not that hard. One of the many applications of bitcoin since the very beginning have been in betting games or gambling. Because of the relative anonymity of bitcoin, and the lower fees, it is very suitable for gambling related applications. Indeed, one such game, satoshiDICE, has been running since 2012, and has paid out a huge number of bitcoins in innumerable transactions to its winners. There are many such games, which you can find be googling. If you want to gamble totally anonymously, you can play gambling or betting games that are available only on darknet or .onion sites. Such sites allow you to browse them anonymous by operating on the tor network, which is a secure network that allows users to browse .onion websites without exposing their own IP address. Bitcoin Mining For each block that is added to the Bitcoin Blockchain, a number of bitcoins are rewarded to the creater of that block. This reward is currently, as of June 2016, 25 bitcoins per block, and it halves every four years. The next halving will be in July 2016. Creating or finding the new blocks, and therefore winning the reward of 25 bitcoins for each block you create, is called bitcoin mining. To do bitcoin mining successfully, you need very powerful computers, which compete with other computers to find the next block. The speed or power of computer that do bitcoin mining is calculated in hashes calculated per second. There are two ways to do bitcoin mining: one is to own hardware or computers that do the mining, and second is to hire the hardware from a third party, usually online, and do the mining on the cloud. Let us discuss the advantages and disadvantages of both in next two sections. Hardware Mining When you own the hardware that does the calculations and mining of bitcoins, its called hardware mining. Hardware mining is the more popular or prevalent of the two types of mining we mentioned. One of the biggest factors which comes into play when doing bitcoin mining using your own hardware is the price of electricity. If you pay top price for electricity, then bitcoin mining may not be your cup of tea. Another related factor is infrastructure needed to cool the hardware; since every cpu generates some amount of heat, you may need to cool the hardware in case they become too heated. No wonder that some of the most successful miners work from China, specially Tibet, where they can get cheap electricity, and their cooling costs are low due to high altitude which reduces the ambient temperature for them. For a more in-depth information on how to setup your hardware mining equipment, have a look at the Antminer setup page. Currently, based on (1) price per hash and (2) electrical efficiency the best Bitcoin miner options are: AntMiner S7 AntMiner S7 Bitcoin Miner 4.73 Th/s 0.25 W/Gh 8.8 pounds Yes $479.95 AntMiner S7 Bitcoin Miner 0.1645 AntMiner S9 AntMiner S9 Bitcoin Miner 13.5 Th/s 0.098 W/Gh 8.1 pounds Yes $1,987.95 AntMiner S9 Bitcoin Miner 0.3603 Avalon6 Avalon6 Bitcoin Miner 3.5 Th/s 0.29 W/Gh 9.5 pounds No $499.95 Avalon6 Bitcoin Miner 0.1232 Cloud Mining There are a number of service providers that allow you to rent computational hardware from them, which can then be used to do bitcon mining. Some of these services are designed with bitcoin mining in mind, whereas others such as Amazon AWS are general purpose services that can also be used to do bitcoin mining. Some of the cloud mining services which can be used to do bitcoin mining on the cloud are: Hashflare Review: Hashflare offers SHA-256 mining contracts and more profitable SHA-256 coins can be mined while automatic payouts are still in BTC. Customers must purchase at least 10 GH/s. Genesis Mining Review: Genesis Mining is the largest Bitcoin and scrypt cloud mining provider. Genesis Mining offers three Bitcoin cloud mining plans that are reasonably priced. Zcash mining contracts are also available. Hashing 24 Review: Hashing24 has been involved with Bitcoin mining since 2012. They have facilities in Iceland and Georgia. They use modern ASIC chips from BitFury deliver the maximum performance and efficiency possible. Minex Review: Minex is an innovative aggregator of blockchain projects presented in an economic simulation game format. Users purchase Cloudpacks which can then be used to build an index from pre-picked sets of cloud mining farms, lotteries, casinos, real-world markets and much more. Minergate Review: Offers both pool and merged mining and cloud mining services for Bitcoin. Hashnest Review: Hashnest is operated by Bitmain, the producer of the Antminer line of Bitcoin miners. HashNest currently has over 600 Antminer S7s for rent. You can view the most up-to-date pricing and availability on Hashnest's website. At the time of writing one Antminer S7's hash rate can be rented for $1,200. Bitcoin Cloud Mining Review: Currently all Bitcoin Cloud Mining contracts are sold out. NiceHash Review: NiceHash is unique in that it uses an orderbook to match mining contract buyers and sellers. Check its website for up-to-date prices. Eobot Review: Start cloud mining Bitcoin with as little as $10. Eobot claims customers can break even in 14 months. MineOnCloud Review: MineOnCloud currently has about 35 TH/s of mining equipment for rent in the cloud. Some miners available for rent include AntMiner S4s and S5s. Written by Bitcoin Mining on May 4, 2016.
Anyone want a free cloud-hosted 10 GH/s bitcoin miner?
So I guess I can send invites to anyone's email, and if you make a new account at zenminers and complete the account tour (takes 30 seconds) you get a completely free 10 GH/s miner. Not a lot of power in the bitcoin mining world, but, hey, it's free! First come, first serve. I believe I may have a limited supply of invites. So, if you're interested, comment/PM me your email and I'll send an invite to you when I get home. I think you could also sell the hashlet on the market for an easy $5-ish Fine Print: Thisisanemailreferral,notalink.Ican'tsendnon-referralemails.IguessIgetsomethingifyoueverbuyanythingfromtheironlinestore. EDIT: Profitability calculator link: here. Not much but it's free. EDIT2: AS OF THIS EDIT, EVERYONE WHO PM'D ME THEIR EMAIL HAS BEEN SENT AN INVITE
I've been reading extensively on bitcoin for the past few days and there are a few holes here and there that I'm trying to understand. So far it makes me believe that this whole mining thing is some sort of elaborated scam. Here is a few unorganized points that are confusing to me. Why are other currencies like litecoin slowly becoming popular and why people want them to become popular? What purpose do litecoin serves that bitcoin doesn't? If the second to bitcoin, a redundant currency like litecoin becomes popular and that people want it to become popular, then what's stop more of those currencies to all becoming popular making each of them just spammy/redundant at the end, don't we only need one of those currencies to serve the purpose of worldwide decentered transactions? The so popular and referred mining hardware comparison sheet gives a list of videocard that are recommended to use. Combined with this calculator people can make some calculations to see if they should invest electricity cost into mining. Now it seems to yield a little free income at the end of the month, all seems well until you investigate further. The power consumption of your videocard shown there is, in the radeon 6850 case, only half of what it truly use at full usage. Now to add to this, I've been mining for more than a day at full power without stopping nor interfering in the process. It tells me I should be making 0.0125 bitcoin a day but I barely made half of that in a bit more than a day, yet I am positive the videocard ran at full strength for the whole process. Now, double electricity cost vs half production, it becomes almost a profitless operation. To this, combined that the current bitcoin value is tenfold what it was 3 months ago, how could it have been profitable back then if it is not right now? Now another suspicious part to me is those 2 websites 12. They offer what every person would ever want, a way to make a lot of money easily. Both of them deliver their products months after purchase and, the 2nd website especially, is selling something that would potentially pays for itself back in less than a month, after which huge profit would come in. How convenient, to sell something that yields huge profit and pays itself back so quickly, better sell than use ourselves right? The first site has sold out, and funnily enough are selling the next batch for 75 bitcoin per... which they could just mine themselves faster than their delivery time, so what's their gain really? Conveniently we have the 2nd website, not sold out, selling something similar to the 1st website, without any pictures of what the behind of their miner looks like, who won't mention anywhere the power consumption of their product but say that it comes with a usb cord, plug and play! That sure not sound fishy at all since the asic counterpart is shown on the comparison sheet as using 600 W, for sure the usb connector hole can output that kind of power right? Hopefully someone can shed some light on all this to the better understanding of least common asked matters, yet quite important for anyone who wants to jump in this... bandwagon... I'm legitimately trying to see things optimistically but so far I only see a few root members trying to scam the entire world by projecting this half legit currency world unto us. Note: sorry for my relatively poor english, I tried putting my thoughts into word as precisely as I could, but I couldn't do it as well as I wish I could.
Hello everyone! I'm looking into getting into mining scrypt currencies like Litecoin and ran into some vary weird calculations that just can not be accurate, but I'm not sure what could be wrong. I found this miner: http://www.amazon.com/BITMAIN-ANTMINER-U2-Bitcoin-Overclockable/dp/B00ITD5NV6/ref=cm_cr_pr_product_top It claims to do 2 GH/s which seems crazy as it is. So I was curious about how profitable it would be. So I Googled "Litecoin mining calculator". I found this website: http://litecoinminingcalculator.com/. It asks for kh/s for their calculator. So I enter in what the 2GH/s would be and unless my math is wrong it should be 2,000,000 KH/s. At that rate it estimates I will mine 191.25 Litecoin a day at the current difficulty of 10,307.9291509 (could this be wrong?) At 191.25 LTC a day that is 67415.09 LTC a year. That has to be wrong isn't it? That's absolutely absurd number. Something has to be wrong, but I'm not sure what it is. Any ideas?
I have been helping a friend develop business strategies at a Bitcoin start-up over the last few months. In the course of this work, the topic of Bitcoin mining appears often to be fraught with misinformation and uncertainty, especially for individual miners who unfortunately may find it difficult to return an adequate profit in many cases. This informal guide covers some important issues prospective miners should consider to avoid headaches and financial loss. The information is derived from experience deploying a 400 TH/s system scheduled to come online in around December. Opinions are my own; I’m happy to entertain constructive feedback. This year, the Bitcoin network will award miners nearly USD 500 million, at the current price of USD 375 per bitcoin, to participate in a process known as mining. Unsurprisingly, this has attracted significant interest not only from Bitcoin advocates, but from speculators and investors as well. Regardless of one’s motivations, the business of Bitcoin mining must ultimately be profitable, or at least operationally viable, if there is to be any chance of success. HOME MINING Acquiring and personally managing ASIC miners is probably the most fulfilling way to mine bitcoins. It provides the greatest level of transparency, but requires a certain level of technical proficiency to set up and run. Advantages: 1) No hosting fees payable 2) Full control of operating parameters 3) Direct payment from mining pool Disadvantages: 1) Purchasing the latest mining hardware is inherently risky because the ongoing development of energy-efficient ASIC chips requires expertise, time and millions of dollars. R&D is usually funded by customer prepayments with no guarantee of timeliness or success. It is not uncommon for miners to incur financial loss and opportunity costs when a supplier fails to deliver 2) The retail price of hardware is typically marked up anywhere from 25% to 500%, or more, depending on market conditions. This creates a barrier to profitability, making it harder for miners to recoup hardware costs if they are unable to negotiate for volume discounts 3) Shipping fees and import tariffs can cost hundreds of dollars per unit, especially if importing equipment from overseas. This adds to the cost of hardware and must be taken into account when calculating the return on investment 4) Shipping time varies greatly. Each day spent in transit incurs an opportunity cost 5) Miners need to set aside space, usually in the home, to locate mining equipment 6) Many mining units may generate excessive noise, and heat that requires around the clock ventilation to maintain an optimal operating temperature range 7) The average mining unit draws up to three amps of current. A system containing twenty units could easily exceed the power limit in a typical home 8) Electricity is by far the largest expense in any mining operation, making up around 90 percent of operating costs. If the price of residential power is materially higher than the rate paid by commercial operators, it makes home mining uncompetitive CLOUD MINING Buying into a cloud mining service is often marketed as a convenient and hassle-free way to get in on Bitcoin mining. As the mining assets are managed by an intermediary, getting a breakdown of operating costs prior to purchase often proves difficult. This makes it challenging for potential customers to make a fully informed buying decision. The unspoken truth is that some cloud miners incorporate obsolete equipment—cheap miners from previous generations or liquidated, unprofitable hardware—into their cloud to sell to unsuspecting customers. Older mining units can consume 80% more power than the current generation miners, leaving very little profit for the customer. In addition to the acquisition price, those in the market for cloud mining should consider the power consumption of the cloud on offer, including changes over time as new mining units are added to increase total capacity. Advantages: 1) Start earning immediately. No waiting weeks or months for equipment delivery, installation and set up 2) Convenient and fully managed mining service means customer needs not be technically inclined or involved in day-to-day operations 3) Professional hosting service ensures optimal performance and low operating costs. Commercial hosts may be able to purchase electricity for a materially lower cost than residential customers 4) Acquisition price is often reasonable. Sometimes, possibly, too good to be true 5) Some platforms allow miners to sell their assets to other traders Disadvantages: 1) Not all hashing power is comparable. For the same acquisition cost, more energy-efficient miners are better because they use less power and return higher profits. When buying hashing power from a cloud, the buyer should ensure he is not getting obsolete hardware. Often this is not possible to verify without a basic understanding of the costs involved, however subpar earnings is a good indication that further investigation is required 2) Hosting and cloud management fees are typically payable. Sometimes there is little transparency in pricing, resulting in unexpected cost to the customer 3) Miner has little input into how the cloud is managed COSTS BREAKDOWN The amount of money earned from Bitcoin mining over a short period of time, say one week, is fairly easy to calculate. Given mining is a zero-sum game where new entrants dilute existing participants and the mining reward is roughly shared on the basis of each miner’s contribution to the overall hash rate, we can derive profit by estimating the income and costs. Mining Income: Weekly mining bitcoins created = 25,200 = 25 bitcoins x 6 times per hour x 24 hours x 7 days Assuming hash rate is at 300,000 TH/s, bitcoins earned weekly per one terahash of processing power = 0.084 bitcoins = (1 terahash/ 300,000 terahash) x 25,200 bitcoins Table 1: Weekly earnings per one terahash of computing power
As new miners enter the market, an increase in hash rate dilutes the mining reward. This is the source of much uncertainty in mining because it is difficult to accurately forecast the rate of increase. Dilution reduces a miner’s income while the amount of work is the same. Mining Costs: Electricity typically comprises around 90 percent of total operating costs. The two determinants of electricity cost are price and the amount of electricity consumed. If we take a hypothetical 700 GH/s system that is rated at 490 watts, we can normalise it: 0.7 kW per one terahash = (1 terahash / 0.7 terahash) x 0.49 kW Electricity used per week is: 117.6 kWh = 0.7 kW x 24 hours x 7 days If we know the cost of electricity, the dollar value of electricity consumed in one week can be estimated. For reference, power prices in Australia are between USD 14 cents (commercial rate) and 19 cents (residential rate). China averages around 8 cents, while other places can be cheaper. For example, in Georgia, USA the cost of commercial electricity is around 6.5 cents per kWh. Table 2: Weekly electricity cost of running a one terahash system
Other costs to consider include mining pool fee (typically 1 percent of earnings), hosting fee (depends on host) and other expenses such as air conditioning if hosting at home, maintenance, etc. Profit: Using the assumptions that hash rate is at 300,000 TH/s and bitcoin price is USD 375, we can work out the profit. Moreover, knowing the basic cost of Bitcoin mining can help prospective miners avoid offers that are too good to be true. To simplify, we ignore other running costs: Profit = (bitcoin price x bitcoins earned) - electricity expense Table 3: Estimated profit from running a one terahash system for one week
These figures serve as a good benchmark for comparing your personal performance. Where the electricity price is known, the difference between the calculated and actual profits can be attributed to two things: 1) Energy efficiency of mining units can cause significant deviation, especially when the cost of electricity is high. This is usually the case if obsolete equipment is being used 2) Hosting fee, mining pool fee and other costs also contribute to the difference Return on Investment: The rate of return is a measure of how much miners make for a given investment size. Implied annualised return = (52 weeks x profit per week) / (hardware cost + shipping fees + tariffs + installation and setup costs) The current price of ASIC miners runs at around USD 500 per terahash, excluding international delivery and insurance that can cost between five to 20 dollars per kg ($50 to $200 per unit). As a general rule, higher operating profit and lower capital costs are preferred. Investors endeavour to break even quickly on the initial hardware investment and make a profit on top of that. The problem with this model is that it implies the hash rate remains unchanged for the entire year. In reality, the hash rate is likely to increase depending on a variety of factors. Therefore, the annual profit forecast is sensitive to changes in the hash rate as well as bitcoin price. This is a complex and interesting topic that deserves its own post. Please, keep in mind that actual mining results will very likely be less than what is indicated by this simple calculation. Under some scenarios, even informed miners can experience financial loss. OPERATING RISKS 1) Liquidity risk: Bitcoin trading is rather shallow. As such, miners may experience high trading frictions when selling bitcoins to obtain cash. A bid-ask spread of up to 10% is not uncommon in some cases. Furthermore, most mining businesses rely on the liquidation of mined bitcoins to cover operating expenses such as electricity and hosting. The combination of these two factors may result in unexpected trading costs to the miner if there is insufficient demand from bitcoin buyers. 2) Price risk: Bitcoin is highly speculative and this is reflected in its price volatility. There is no guarantee that it won’t be worthless by next year. Therefore, the miner should keep in mind that the market price is just as important as the amount of bitcoins he holds. Bitcoin price is influenced by multiple factors outside of the scope of this discussion. 3) Competition risk: Bitcoin mining is a zero-sum game. While the size of the reward is fixed, new entrants are permitted to enter at anytime reducing all miners’ share of the reward. When bitcoin price is high, more new competitors are attracted to mining, further eroding all participants’ income. 4) As a function of the Bitcoin protocol, the mining reward will be halved between May and June of 2016. When this happens, all miners will experience an immediate decline of 50 percent in income with many operators becoming unviable. This effectively gives new entrants less than 1.5 years to break even and turn a profit. The short window of opportunity is troublesome because it makes mining significantly less profitable as the deadline draws near.
Calculate Bitcoin (BTC) mining profitability in realtime based on hashrate, power consumption and electricity cost. BTC exchange rates, mining pools. BTC exchange rates, mining pools. $12,976.61 $62.75 $412.92 $126.63 $5.37 $72.44 $55.67 Follow @WhatToMine dark mode Bitcoin's block time is roughly 10 minutes. Every 10 minutes or so, a block is verified and a block reward is issued to the miner. When Bitcoin was first created, miners received 50 BTC for verifying a block. Every 210,000 blocks – roughly 4 years – the amount of BTC in the block reward halves. Accurate BitcoinGold mining calculator trusted by millions of cryptocurrency miners. Updated in 2020, the newest version of the BitcoinGold mining calculator makes it simple and easy to quickly calculate mining profitability for your BitcoinGold mining hardware. Profitability Calculator. Check or Compare the potential earnings of your hardware. Calculator Comparison Auto Detection . For CPU & GPU only. autodetect my hardware For Windows 64bit users only. or. Manual Selection. CPU, GPU & ASIC. ENTER HARDWARE MANUALLY. BEST PERFORMING HARDWARE Top 5 hardware Currently on NiceHash. ASIC. EARNINGS/DAY. BITMAIN AntMiner S19 Pro. 0.00083300 BTC $10.81 ... Bitcoin Mining Calculator. A Bitcoin mining calculator allows you to determine how much can you profit from a certain Bitcoin miner.It takes into account all relevant costs, such as hardware, electricity, and fees.
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Thanks for watching, make sure to subscribe, like and share Link: https://goo.gl/n8ZuBG https://goo.gl/RXQCcb FB Link : https://goo.gl/Q6Txeh if any query then chat with me on FB ... Use code "87516c" and get 3% off every purchase on Genesis Mining! https://www.genesis-mining.com/a/365515 Join Hasflare https://hashflare.io/r/AFAAE03D Bitcoin mining profit calculator bitcoin mining profitability bitcoin calculator usd bitcoin cloud mining calculator current bitcoin difficulty litecoin mining calculator x11 mining calculator ... Thanks for watching, make sure to subscribe, like and share Link: https://goo.gl/etzdqb FB Link : https://goo.gl/Q6Txeh if any query then chat with me on FB ... Howdy! Today I am looking at CCG Mining Profit Calculator to see which coins will be profitable and how much it will cost to invest. CCG Mining: https://www....